The Complexity of the Living Cell

cell_diagram

Scientific study confirms that there are two types of cells—those with a nucleus and those without— so as bacterial cells. Cells with a nucleus are called eukaryotic cells. Cells with no nucleus are known as prokaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are less complex and many believe that complex life originates from this kind of cells.

Credit: Benedict Campbell. Wellcome Images
Brain cell             Credit: Benedict Campbell. Wellcome Images

Our body is made up of some 100 trillion cells and there are more than 200 different types of cells. All these cells form a more complex network than the internet with its millions of computer and highspeed data cables and can not compete with the most basic of cells.

Cell membrane with its ''security guards''
The cell membrane with its ”security guards”, the membrane transporter proteins, that allow only specific substances to pass in or out.

THE CELL’S PROTECTIVE WALL

The cell have a flexible and sophisticated membrane that allows the cell to “breathe”. Special protein molecules, the membrane transporter proteins,  permitting small molecules, such as oxygen, to pass in or out, and blocks potentially damaging molecules or useful molecules from entering or leaving the cell without the cell’s permission.

Consider, that on the surface on even the simplest of cells are different kind of proteins in shape and function. Some proteins have a hole through the middle of them that allows only specific types of molecules in and out of the cell.  Other proteins are open on one side of the cell membrane and close on the other. (Membrane transporter proteins) They have a docking site shaped to fit a specific substance. When that substance docks, the other end of the protein opens and releases the cargo through the membrane.

indexINSIDE THE CELL

The interior of a prokaryotic cell is filled with a watery fluid that is rich in nutrients and is used by the cell to manufacture the products it needs. For this reason fhe cell organizes thousands of chemical reactions that take place in a well organized and specific order. A cell spends a lot of time making proteins. First the cell make about 20 different basic building blocks called amino acids who are delivered to the ribosomes that link the amino acids in a precise order to form a specific protein.

From_the_Cell_to_Protein_Machines_-_original
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. (Wikipedia)

HOW THE FUNCTIONS OF A CELL ARE GOVERNED

Many of the functions of a cell are governed by a code likened to a computer program known as DNA. The ribosome receives detailed instructions that tell it which protein to build and how to build it. The result is a threedimensional shape protein.The threedimensional shape determines the specialized job that the protein will do. If the protein is not precisely constructed it will not be abel to do its work properly and may even damage the cell. Each protein has a build-in “address tag” that ensures that the protein will be delivered to where it is needed. Although thousands of proteins are build and delivered each minute, each one arrives at the correct destination. Enzymes are one example of proteins made by cells. Each enzyme is folded in a special way to accellerate particular chemical reactions. Hundreds of enzymes cooperate to regulate the cell’s activities. The complex molecule cannot reproduce alone. Outside the cell, they break down, inside the cell, they cannot reproduce without the help of other complex molecules.

HOW FAST CAN A CELL REPRODUCE?

Some bacteria are able to make copies of themselfs within 20 minutes. Then it divides. It can increase in number exponentially at a rate that would take only two days to produce a clump of cells with a weight more than 2,500 times greater then that of the earth. Cells that are more complex can also replicate quickly. For example, the brain cells of the embryo are formed at the astouding rate of 250,000 per minute!

Proteins can be made only by a cell, but a cell can be made only with proteins.
The living cell.   Proteins can be made only by a cell, but a cell can be made only with proteins.

THE CELL FACTORY

Some of the cells in the human body are made up of about 10,000,000,000 protein molecules of several hundreds thousand different kinds. Microbiologist Radu Popa, asked: “How can nature make life if we failed with all the experimental conditions controlled? ( Between Necessity and Probability: Searching for the Definition and Origin of Life, by Radu Popa, 2004, p. 129) He also says: ” The complexity of the mechanisms required for the functioning of a living cell is so large that a simultaneous emergence by chance seems impossible.” ( Between Necessity and Probability: Searching for the Definition and Origin of Life, pp. 126-127.)—The more scientists discover about life, less likely it appears that it could arise by chance.

Credit to: The Origin of Life—Five Questions Worth Asking—WATCHTOWER BIBLE AND TRACT SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, INC.— Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.

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